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Volume 25, Issue 2, 2024

Evaluation of the Water Quality Index of Baghdad's Groundwater Using GIS

Imad F. Farhan, Sepanta Naimi

> DOI: https://jeeng.net/issue/view/?id=104

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Groundwater Suitability Analysis, Baghdad, GIS, IDW, Water quality for drinking



Groundwater is an essential source due to its reliable quality and availability that characterizes it as a water resource. Therefore, studying groundwater and its characteristics requires more attention. This study aims to evaluate the suitability of groundwater quality for drinking purposes in Baghdad city, Iraq through water quality index (WQI) under geographic information systems (GIS) environment. The study area is in central Iraq, with an approximate area of 900 𝑘𝑚2. Groundwater wells hydrochemistry data were collected from Ministry of Water Resources in Iraq representing the sites of 48 wells within the study area for two periods; 2013 and 2022. The IDW interpolation method then used in GIS to generate spatial distribution of the water quality index values across the study area. WQI values in the study area ranges from 23.3-262.2 (2013) and from 45.5-470.5 (2022). According to the results, only 4 and 1 wells (17% and 4%) were suitable for drinking purposes in 2013 and 2022 respectively, while 20 and 23 wells (83% and 96%) were classified as unsuitable for drinking purposes. The study concluded that the variations in the WQI values for wells in the city of Baghdad that are caused by water leaking from sewerage networks and the incomplete treatment of sewage that is discharged into the Tigris River. Study recommends establishing water treatment facilities to purify the unsuitable waters for drinking Therefore it can be a reliable source of drinking water in the study area